Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology

Abbreviations and Symbols

The following and other commonly recognized abbreviations can be used without definition.
Otherwise, abbreviations must be defined the first time they are used in each article.

adenosine 5’-monophosphate AMP
adenosine 5’-diphosphate ADP
adenosine 5’-triphosphates ATP
adrenocorticotropin ACTH
androgen receptor AR
arginine vasopressin AVP
base pair bp
calcitonin CT
chorionic gonadotropin CG
complementary DNA cDNA
complementary RNA cRNA
corticotropin-releasing hormone CRH
3’,5’-cyclic AMP cAMP
dalton(s) Da
day(s) d
deoxyribonucleic acid DNA
Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium DMEM
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA
estradiol E2
estrogen receptor ER
ethylenediamine tetra-acetate EDTA
fetal bovine serum FBS
fetal calf serum FCS
follicle-stimulating hormone FSH
free fatty acids FFA
glucocorticoid receptor GR
gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH (LHRH)
growth hormone (somatotropin) GH
GH-releasing hormone GHRH
GH-release inhibiting factor (somatostatin) SRIF (SS)
guanosine 5’-monophosphate GMP
guanosine 5’diphosphate GDP
guanosine 5’-triphosphate GTP
GTP-binding protein G protein
half-time t1/2
N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N’-2-ethane sulfonic acid HEPES
high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC
hour(s) h
insulin-like growth factor I IGF I
insulin-like growth factor II IGF II
interleukin IL (e.g., IL-1, IL-6)
international unit IU
intramuscular(-ly) im
intraperitoneal(-ly) ip
intravenous(-ly) iv
luteinizing hormone LH
liters per mole M-1
log of the odds LOD
loss of heterozygosity LOH
median effective dose ED50
messenger RNA mRNA
mineralocorticoid receptor MR
minute(s) min
molar (moles per liter) M (e.g., 0.1 M, not M/10)
molecular weight mol wt (not used with daltons)
month(s) mo
normal (concentration) N (e.g., 0.1 N, not N/10)
not significant NS
nucleotide nt
number no.
open reading frame ORF
oxytocin OT
parathyroid hormone PTH
peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor PPAR
phosphate-buffered saline PBS
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase PI3K
polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis PAGE
polymerase chain reaction PCR
probability p
prolactin PRL
prostaglandin PG
protein kinase A (or cAMP-dependent protein kinase) PKA
protein kinase C PKC
PTH-related peptide PTHrP
Radioimmunoassay RIA
reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR
ribonucleic acid RNA
second sec
sex hormone-binding globulin SHBG
sodium dodecyl sulfate SDS
standard deviation SD
standard error SE
standard error of the mean SEM
Student’s t test t-test
subcutaneous(ly) sc
testosterone T
5α-dihydrotestosterone 5α-DHT
thyroglobulin Tg
thyroid hormone receptor TR
thyrotropin TSH
thyroxine T₄
3,5,3’-triiodothyronine T₃
3,3’,5’-triiodothyronine rT₃
transfer RNA tRNA
transforming growth factor TGF
tris(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane Tris
TSH-releasing hormone TRH
tumor necrosis factor TNF
vasoactive intestinal peptide VIP
vitamin D receptor VDR
volume vol
week(s) wk
weight wt
wild-type WT
year(s) yr

Nomenclature of Steroids

Steroids should be named according to the rules of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and International Union of Biochemistry (IUPAC) (Pure and Applied Chem.1989; 61: 1783–1822).

The following trivial names for steroids, however, may be used without definition: